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Hip Pain

Hip Pain

Hip pain, one of the common complaints, may not always be felt precisely over the hip joint rather in and around the hip joint. The cause for pain is multifactorial and the exact position of your hip pain suggests the probable cause or underlying condition causing it.

Hip Labral Tear

Hip Labral Tear

A hip labral tear is an injury to the labrum, the cartilage that surrounds the outside rim of your hip joint socket.

Hip Bursitis

Hip Bursitis

Hip bursitis is a painful condition caused by the inflammation of a bursa in the hip. Bursae are fluid-filled sacs present in the joints between bone and soft tissue to reduce friction and provide cushioning during movement.

Osteoarthritis of the Hip

Osteoarthritis of the Hip

Osteoarthritis, also called degenerative joint disease, is the most common form of arthritis. It occurs most often in the elderly. This disease affects the tissue covering the ends of bones in a joint called cartilage.

Hip Fracture

Hip Fracture

The hip joint is a “ball and socket” joint. The “ball” is the head of the femur or thighbone, and the “socket” is the cup-shaped acetabulum. The joint surface is covered by a smooth articular surface that allows pain-free movement in the joint.

Hip Injury

Hip Injury

The hip joint is one of the most important and flexible joints in the human body which allows us to walk, run, bend and perform physical activities. It is a ball (femoral head) and socket joint formed between the hip bone and femur (thighbone).

Hip Dislocation

Hip Dislocation

The hip joint is a “ball and socket” joint. The “ball” is the head of the femur or thighbone, and the “socket” is the cup-shaped acetabulum. The joint is surrounded by muscles, ligaments, and tendons that support and hold the bones of the joint in place.

Hip Instability

Hip Instability

Injury or damage to these structures can lead to a condition called hip instability when the joint becomes unstable.

Hamstring Injuries

Hamstring Injuries

The hamstring is a group of three muscles that run along the back of the thigh from the hip to the knee. Hamstring injuries occur when these muscles are strained or pulled.

Hip Osteonecrosis

Hip Osteonecrosis

Hip osteonecrosis occurs due to disruption of the blood supply to the highest part of the thigh bone (femoral head). Due to lack of nourishment, the bone tissue of the femoral head dies and gradually collapses, which may further lead to degeneration of the underlying cartilage.

Hip Adductor Injuries

Hip Adductor Injuries

A hip adductor injury is also called a groin strain or groin tear and involves any of the adductor muscles. These injuries are common among athletes and those who play hockey, football, soccer, basketball, tennis, baseball, etc.

Hip Ligament Injuries

Hip Ligament Injuries

Injuries to the hip ligaments are commonly called a hip sprain and can range from minor tears of the ligaments to more serious injuries involving the hip muscles, tendons or bone.

Greater Trochanteric Pain Syndrome

Greater Trochanteric Pain Syndrome

GTPS, also called trochanteric bursitis, is a localized painful condition affecting your outer thigh and hip area where the pain is typically confined to only the outer side of the femur at the edge of the hip.

Hip Flexor Strain

Hip Flexor Strain

A hip flexor strain is an overuse injury to the flexor muscles of your hip and can range from a minor stretch injury to a complete tear of the muscle fibers or tendons.

Piriformis Syndrome

Piriformis Syndrome

The sciatic nerve is a thick and long nerve that passes below or through the piriformis muscle and goes down the back of the leg and finally ends in the feet in the form of smaller nerves. Piriformis syndrome is a rare neuromuscular condition caused by the compression of the sciatic nerve by the piriformis muscle.

Stress Fractures of the Hip

Stress Fractures of the Hip

Stress fractures of the hip are a break in the upper part of the thigh bone (femur) that fits into the socket of the hip joint. It can occur in any part of the hip, however, it mostly occurs just below the ball of the ball-and-socket hip joint called the femoral neck.

Avulsion Fractures of the Pelvis

Avulsion Fractures of the Pelvis

Avulsion fractures of the pelvis is an injury that occurs when a tendon or ligament pulls off a piece of bone from the hip. This results in a part of the pelvic (hip) bone breaking away from the main part of the bone.

Borderline Hip Dysplasia

Borderline Hip Dysplasia

Hip dysplasia is a medical condition where the acetabulum (hip socket) does not fully cover the ball-like head at the top of the femur (thighbone). Most people who have hip dysplasia are born with it.

Periprosthetic Hip Fractures

Periprosthetic Hip Fractures

Hip replacement is a surgical procedure in which the damaged cartilage and bone are removed from the hip joint and replaced with artificial components. Any resulting fractures or breaks in the bone around the implant are called periprosthetic hip fractures.

Femoral Neck Fracture

Femoral Neck Fracture

The hip is a ball-and-socket joint made up of the head of the thigh bone or femur that acts as the ball and fits into the rounded socket of the hip bone or acetabulum. The neck of the femur is the region just below the ball of the hip joint.

Hip Flexor Pain

Hip Flexor Pain

Hip flexor pain is a distressing feeling or discomfort noted in the hip and/or groin region that can make everyday activities, such as going up and down the stairs or lifting your leg to tie a shoe extremely difficult and painful and can severely limit your activity and mobility.

Gluteus Tendon Tear

Gluteus Tendon Tear

A gluteus medius tear is the partial or complete rupture of the gluteus medius muscle due to severe muscle strain. Gluteus medius tears often occur at the tendinous attachment to the greater trochanter of the femur bone.

Pelvic Fractures

Pelvic Fractures

A pelvic fracture is a condition that occurs due to the breakage of the pelvic bone. It may cause damage to the internal organs, nerves and blood vessels associated with the pelvic region.

Femoroacetabular Impingement

Femoroacetabular Impingement

Femoroacetabular impingement (FAI) is a condition characterized by excessive friction in the hip joint from the presence of bony irregularities. These cause pain and decreased range of hip motion.

Avascular Necrosis

Avascular Necrosis

Avascular necrosis, also called osteonecrosis, is a condition in which bone death occurs because of inadequate blood supply to it. Lack of blood flow may occur when there is a fracture in the bone or a joint dislocation that may damage nearby blood vessels.

Femoral Shaft Fracture

Femoral Shaft Fracture

A femoral shaft fracture is a crack or break anywhere along the long and straight section of the femur (thighbone) due to high-energy trauma or low-energy trauma in osteoporotic patients. The femur is the strongest and longest bone in the body.

Hip Groin Disorders

Hip Groin Disorders

Hip and groin disorders are more common in athletes. They are caused by rapid acceleration and deceleration motion.

Subtrochanteric Hip Fracture

Subtrochanteric Hip Fracture

A hip fracture is a break that occurs near the hip in the upper part of the femur or thighbone. The thighbone has two bony processes on the upper part - the greater and lesser trochanters. The lesser trochanter projects from the base of the femoral neck on the back of the thighbone.

Hip Abductor Tears

Hip Abductor Tears

Hip abductors are a major group of muscles found in the buttocks. It includes the gluteus maximus, gluteus medius, gluteus minimus, and tensor fascia lata muscles.

Hip Synovitis

Hip Synovitis

Hip synovitis, also called transient hip synovitis or toxic synovitis, is a condition characterized by inflammation of the synovial tissues that surround the hip joint. It is the most common cause for sudden hip pain that occurs in young children between the age of 2 and 9.

Developmental Dysplasia

Developmental Dysplasia

Developmental dysplasia of the hip (DDH) or hip dysplasia is a condition that is seen in infants and young children because of developmental problems in the hip joint. The femur (thighbone) partially or completely slips out of the hip socket leading to dislocation at the hip joint.

Legg-Calve-Perthes-Disease

Legg-Calve-Perthes-Disease

Legg-Calve-Perthes disease (LCPD) or Perthes disease is a disorder of the hip that affects children, usually between the ages of 4 and 10. It usually involves one hip, although it can occur on both sides in some children. It occurs more commonly in boys than girls.

Irritable Hip

Irritable Hip

Irritable hip, also known as acute transient synovitis, is a common disorder of childhood characterized by hip pain and limping. The term transient means that it does not last long. It usually occurs before puberty and affects only one hip. Boys aged between 4 to 10 years are most often affected.

Hip Tendonitis

Hip Tendonitis

Tendons are strong connective tissue structures that connect muscle to bone. Hip tendonitis is a condition associated with degeneration of the hip tendons. This condition is mainly caused due to strain on the tendons which may occur due to overuse or biomechanical problems.

Hip Pointer

Hip Pointer

The hip joint consists of the femur (thighbone) and pelvic bone, which is made up of the fusion of three bones – the ischium, pubis, and ilium. The femur has two boney prominences close to the hip joint – the greater and lesser trochanters.

Femur Fracture

Femur Fracture

The femur or thigh bone is the longest and strongest bone in the body, connecting the hip to the knee. A femur fracture is a break in the femur.

Groin Injuries in Athletes

Groin Injuries in Athletes

Groin injuries are injuries sustained by athletes during sports activity. Groin injuries comprise about 2 to 5 percent of all sports injuries. The most common kind of groin injury is a groin strain or a pulled groin muscle.

Periprosthetic Hip Infection

Periprosthetic Hip Infection

A very small percentage of patients (less than 1%) who undergo hip replacement may develop an infection around the hip joint following surgery. This infection is called a periprosthetic hip infection.

Hip Arthroscopy

Hip Arthroscopy

Hip arthroscopy, also referred to as keyhole or minimally invasive surgery, is a procedure in which an arthroscope is inserted into your hip joint to check for any damage and repair it simultaneously.

Minimally Invasive Total Hip Replacement

Minimally Invasive Total Hip Replacement

Minimally invasive total hip replacement is a surgical procedure performed through one or two small incisions rather than the single long incision of 10–12-inches as in the traditional approach.

Total Hip Replacement

Total Hip Replacement

Total hip replacement is a surgical procedure in which the damaged cartilage and bone are removed from the hip joint and replaced with artificial components. The main indication for total hip replacement is arthritis.

Hip Labral Repair

Hip Labral Repair

Labrum is a ring of strong fibrocartilaginous tissue lining around the socket of the hip joint. Labrum serves many functions where it acts as a shock absorber, lubricates the joint, and distributes the pressure equally.

Hip Fracture Surgery

Hip Fracture Surgery

Surgical correction of a hip fracture is known as hip fracture surgery.
Hip fractures involve a break that occurs near the hip in the upper part of the femur or thigh bone. The thigh bone has two bony processes on the upper part - the greater and lesser trochanters.

Hip Hemiarthroplasty

Hip Hemiarthroplasty

Hip hemiarthroplasty is a surgical technique employed to treat hip fractures. In this procedure, only one half (ball section) of the hip joint is substituted by a metal prosthesis.

Hip Preservation Surgery

Hip Preservation Surgery

The hip is a ball and socket joint comprising of the femur (thigh bone) and the pelvic bone. The head of the femur (ball) articulates with a cavity (socket) called the acetabulum in the pelvic bone

Hip Cartilage Repair

Hip Cartilage Repair

Hip cartilage is a white, tough, flexible tissue covering the ball (femoral head) and socket (acetabulum) of your hip joint. It acts as a cushion or shock-absorber and allows the bones to slide over one another by providing a smooth surface in the joint.

Proximal Hamstring Repair

Proximal Hamstring Repair

Hamstring injuries primarily occur when the muscle is exposed to extreme strain; when it is stretched beyond its ability or when it must withstand a sudden load.

Physical Therapy for Hip

Physical Therapy for Hip

Physical therapy is an exercise program that helps you to improve movement, relieve pain, encourage blood flow for faster healing, and restore your physical function and fitness level. The main aim of physical therapy is to make your daily activities, such as walking, getting in and out of bed and climbing stairs, easier.

Hip Arthroscopy - Supine Position

Hip Arthroscopy - Supine Position

Arthroscopy, also referred to as keyhole or minimally invasive surgery, is a procedure in which an arthroscope is inserted into a joint to check for any damage and to repair the problem at the same time.

Complex Hip Reconstruction Surgery

Complex Hip Reconstruction Surgery

Complex hip reconstruction surgery is a surgical procedure employed to treat hip structures with complex hip fractures or traumatic hip injuries, deformities, structural issues, and damage from diseases such as arthritis.

Hip Capsular Closure

Hip Capsular Closure

The hip capsule is a membranous fold consisting of three major ligaments enveloping the hip joint. It protects the joint and stabilizes it by keeping the joint in position.

Arthroscopic Gluteus Medius Tendon Repair

Arthroscopic Gluteus Medius Tendon Repair

Arthroscopic gluteus medius tendon repair is a minimally invasive surgical procedure employed for the treatment of a gluteus medius tendon tear, when the tear does not respond to conservative treatment.

Femoral Osteoplasty

Femoral Osteoplasty

Osteoplasty is a surgery performed to repair and redesign a bone to its original shape. The surgery is used to treat bone deformation in various joints of the body.

Hip Distraction

Hip Distraction

The hip joint is one of the most important and flexible joints in the human body which allows us to walk, run, bend and perform physical activities. It is a ball (femoral head) and socket joint formed between the hip bone and femur (thigh bone).

Hip Microfracture

Hip Microfracture

Hip Microfracture is a marrow-stimulating technique that creates a network of small holes in the bone below the hip cartilage (subchondral bone). The goal of the procedure is to increase the blood supply to stimulate cartilage growth.

Gluteus Medius Tear

Gluteus Medius Tear

A gluteus medius tear is the partial or complete rupture of the gluteus medius muscle due to severe muscle strain. Gluteus medius tears often occur at the tendinous attachment to the greater trochanter of the femur bone.

Postless Hip Arthroscopy

Postless Hip Arthroscopy

Postless hip arthroscopy is a minimally-invasive surgical technique that does not involve the use of perineal posts. Surgery is performed by arthroscopy. An arthroscope is a small, fiber-optic instrument consisting of a lens, light source, and video camera.

Hip Cartilage Restoration

Hip Cartilage Restoration

Hip cartilage restoration is a surgical technique to repair damaged articular cartilage in the hip joint by stimulating new growth of cartilage or by transplanting cartilage into areas with defects in order to relieve pain and restore normal function to the hip.

Physical Examination of the Hip

Physical Examination of the Hip

The physical examination of the hip by your doctor includes a visual inspection of your hip, palpation of the hip to diagnose tenderness or any abnormality, etc; and testing range of motion of the hip.

Hip Joint

The hip joint is the largest weight-bearing joint in the human body. It is also referred to as a ball and socket joint and is surrounded by muscles, ligaments, and tendons. The thigh bone or femur and the pelvis join to form the hip joint.

Any injury or disease of the hip will adversely affect the joint's range of motion and ability to bear weight.

The hip joint is made up of the following:

  • Bones and joints
  • Ligaments of the joint capsule
  • Muscles and tendons
  • Nerves and blood vessels that supply the bones and muscles of the hip

Bones and Joints

The hip joint is the junction where the hip joins the leg to the trunk of the body. It is comprised of two bones: the thigh bone or femur and the pelvis which is made up of three bones called ilium, ischium, and pubis. The ball of the hip joint is made by the femoral head while the socket is formed by the acetabulum. The Acetabulum is a deep, circular socket formed on the outer edge of the pelvis by the union of three bones: ilium, ischium, and pubis. The lower part of the ilium is attached by the pubis while the ischium is considerably behind the pubis. The stability of the hip is provided by the joint capsule or acetabulum and the muscles and ligaments which surround and support the hip joint.

The head of the femur rotates and glides within the acetabulum. A fibrocartilagenous lining called the labrum is attached to the acetabulum and further increases the depth of the socket.

The femur or thigh bone is one of the longest bones in the human body. The upper part of the thigh bone consists of the femoral head, femoral neck, and greater and lesser trochanters. The head of the femur joins the pelvis (acetabulum) to form the hip joint. Next, to the femoral neck, there are two protrusions known as greater and lesser trochanters which serve as sites of muscle attachment.

Articular cartilage is the thin, tough, flexible, and slippery surface lubricated by synovial fluid that covers the weight-bearing bones of the body. It enables smooth movements of the bones and reduces friction.

Ligaments

Ligaments are fibrous structures that connect bones to other bones. The hip joint is encircled with ligaments to provide stability to the hip by forming a dense and fibrous structure around the joint capsule. The ligaments adjoining the hip joint include:

  • Iliofemoral ligament: This is a Y-shaped ligament that connects the pelvis to the femoral head at the front of the joint. It helps in limiting the over-extension of the hip.
  • Pubofemoral ligament: This is a triangular shaped ligament that extends between the upper portion of the pubis and the iliofemoral ligament. It attaches the pubis to the femoral head.
  • Ischiofemoral ligament: This is a group of strong fibers that arise from the ischium behind the acetabulum and merge with the fibers of the joint capsule.
  • Ligamentum teres: This is a small ligament that extends from the tip of the femoral head to the acetabulum. Although it has no role in hip movement, it does have a small artery within that supplies blood to a part of the femoral head.
  • Acetabular labrum: The labrum is a fibrous cartilage ring which lines the acetabular socket. It deepens the cavity, increasing the stability and strength of the hip joint.

Muscles and Tendons

A long tendon called the iliotibial band runs along the femur from the hip to the knee and serves as an attachment site for several hip muscles including the following:

  • Gluteals: These are the muscles that form the buttocks. There are three muscles (gluteus minimus, gluteus maximus, and gluteus medius) that attach to the back of the pelvis and insert into the greater trochanter of the femur.
  • Adductors: These muscles are located in the thigh which helps in adduction, the action of pulling the leg back towards the midline.
  • Iliopsoas: This muscle is located in front of the hip joint and provides flexion. It is a deep muscle that originates from the lower back and pelvis and extends up to the inside surface of the upper part of the femur.
  • Rectus femoris: This is the largest band of muscles located in front of the thigh. They also are hip flexors.
  • Hamstring muscles: These begin at the bottom of the pelvis and run down the back of the thigh. Because they cross the back of the hip joint, they help in extension of the hip by pulling it backward.

Nerves and Arteries

Nerves of the hip transfer signals from the brain to the muscles to aid in hip movement. They also carry the sensory signals such as touch, pain, and temperature back to the brain.

The main nerves in the hip region include the femoral nerve in the front of the femur and the sciatic nerve at the back. The hip is also supplied by a smaller nerve known as the obturator nerve.

In addition to these nerves, there are blood vessels that supply blood to the lower limbs. The femoral artery, one of the largest arteries in the body, arises deep in the pelvis and can be felt in front of the upper thigh.

Hip Movements

All of the anatomical parts of the hip work together to enable various hip movements. Hip movements include flexion, extension, abduction, adduction, circumduction, and hip rotation.

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